The Treaty with the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel

His Britannic Majesty being desirous of employing in his service a body of twelve thousand men of the troops of his most Serene Highness the reigning Landgrave of Hesse Cassel, and that prince full of attachment for his Majesty, desiring nothing more than to give him proofs of it, his Majesty, in order to settle the objects, relative to this alliance has thought proper to send to Cassel the Sieur William Faucitt his minister plenipotentiary and colonel in his service, and his most Serene Highness has named, in his part for the same purpose, the Baron Martin Ernest de Schlieffen his minister of state, lieutenant general and knight of his orders, who being furnished with requisite full powers, have agreed that the treaties formerly concluded between Great Britain and Hesse, shall be made the basis of the present treaty, and to adopt as mach of them as shall be applicable to the present circumstances, or to determine by new articles such points as must be settled otherwise, every thing shall not be differently regulated, shall be deemed to subsist in full force, as it shall appear to be declared in the abovementioned treaties, and as it is not possible to specify each particular case, every thing that shall not be found regulated in a precise manner, neither in the present treaty nor in the former treaties, ought to be settled with equity and good faith, conformably to the same principles which were agreed on each part to be pursued for regulating all such cases, wheter during or after the last war.

    I. There shall be therefore, by virtue of this treaty between his Majesty the King of Great Britain and his most Serene Highness the Landgrave of Hesse Cassel, their successors and heirs, a strict friendship, and a sincere, firm and constant union, in so much that the one shall consider the interests of the other as his own, and shall apply himself with good faith to advance them to the utmost, and to prevent and avert mutually all trouble and loss.

    II. To this end is agreed, that all former treaties principally of guaranty, be deemed to be renewed and confirmed by the present treaty in all their points, articles and clauses, and shall be of the same force as if they were herein inserted, word for word, so far as it not derogated from them by the present treaty.

    III. This body of twelve thousand men, of the troops of Hesse, which is to be employed in his Britannic Majesty's service, shall consist of four battalions of grenadiers, of four companies each, fifteen battalions of Infantry of five companies each, and two companies of chasseurs, the whole provided with general and other necessary officers. This corps shall be compleatly equipped and provided with tents, and all accountrements of which it may stand in need; in a word shall be put upon the best footing possible, and none shall be admitted into it but men fit for service, and acknowledged for such by His Britannic Majesty's commissary. Formerly the signature of the treaties has usually preceded, by some time, the term of the requisition for the march of the troops, but as in the present circumstances there is no time to be lost, the day of signature of the present treaty is deemed to be also the term of the requisition, and three battalions of grenadiers, six battalions of Infantry, with one company of chasseurs, shall be in a condition to pass in review before his Britannic Majesty's commissary on the fourteenth of February, and shall begin to march on the day following the fifteenth of February, for the place of embarkation. The rest shall be ready in four weeks after, if possible and march in like manner.This body of troops shall not be separated, unless reasons of war require it, but shall remain under the orders of the general to whom his most Serene Highness has entrusted the command, and the second division shall be conducted to the same places only where the first shall actually be, if not contrary to the plan of operations.

    IV. Each battalion of this body of troops shall be provided with two pieces of field artillery, with the officers, gunners and other persons, and the train thereunto belonging, if his Majesty is desirous of it.

    V. Toward defraying the expence in which the most Serene Landgrave shall be engaged, for the arming and putting in condition the said corps of twelve thousand men, his Majesty the King of Great Britain promises to pay to his most Serene Highness, for each foot soldier thirty crowns banco levy money, as well for the Infantry as for the chasseurs, or artillery, if there should be any, the sum total of which shall be ascertained according to the number of men composing this corps, and as they have been reckoned in former alliances.The sum of one hundred and eighty thousand crowns banco valued as in the following article, shall be paid on account of this levy money on the tenth of February, and the residue shall be paid when the second division of this corps shall begin their march.

    VI. In all the former treaties a certain number of years is stipulated for their duration, but in the present his Britannic Majesty choosing rather not to engage himself for any longer time than he shall have occassion for these troops, consents instead thereof that the subsidy shall be double from the day of the signature of this treaty to its expiration, that is to say, that it shall amount for this body of twelve thousand men to the sum of four hundred and fifty thousand crowns banco per annum, the crown reckoned at fifty three sols of Holland, or at four shilling and nine pence three farthings English money, and that the subsidy shall continue upon this foot during all the time that this body of troops shall remain in British pay. His Britannic Majesty engages also to give notice to the most Serene Landgrave of its termination twelve months or a whole year before it shall take place, which notice shall not even given before this body of troops is returned, and actually is arrived in the dominions of the said prince, namely in Hesse, properly so called. His Majesty shall continue equally to this corps the pay and other emoluments for the remainder of the month in which it shall repass the frontiers of Hesse, and his most Serene Highness reserves to himself on his side the liberty of recaling his troops at the end of four years, if they are not sent back before, or to agree with his Britannic Majesty at the end to that time for another term.

    VII. With regard to the pay and treatment, as well ordinary as extraordinary, of the said troops, they shall be put on the same foot, in all respects, with the national British troops, and his Majesty's departement of war shall deliver without delay to that of his most Serene Highness, an exact and faithful state of the pay and treatment enjoyed by those troops, which pay and treatment, in consideration that his most Serene Highness could not put this corps in a condition to march in so short a time without extraordinary expence shall commence for tile first division on the first February, and for the second, seven days before it shall begin the march, and shall be paid into the military chest of Hesse, without any abatement or deduction, to be distributed according to the arrangements which shall be made for that purpose, and the sum of twenty thousand pounds sterling shall be advanced immediately on account of the said pay.

    VIII. If it should happen unfortunately that any regiment or company of the said corps should be ruined or distroyed either by accidents on the sea or otherwise, in the whole or in part, or that the pieces of artillery or other effects with they shall be provided, should be taken by the enemy, or lost on the sea, His Majesty the King of Great Britain shall cause to paid the expences of the necessary recruits, as well as the price of the said field pieces and effects, in order forthwith to reinstate the artillery or the said regiments and companies, and the said recruits shall be settled likewise on the foot of those which were furnished to the Hessian officers by virtue of the treaty of 1702, article the fifth, to the end that the corps may be always preserved and sent back in as good state as it was delivered in, the recruits annually necessary shall be sent to the English Commissary, disciplined and completly equipped, at the place of embarkation, at such time as his Britannic Majesty shall appoint.

    IX. In Europe his Majesty shall make use of this body of troops by land wherever he shall judge proper, but North America is the only country of the other parts of the globe where this body of troops shall he employed. They shall not serve on the sea, and they shall enjoy, in all things, without any restriction what soever, the same pay and emoluments as are enjoyed by the English troops.

    X. In case the Most Serene Landgrave should be attacked or disturbed in the possession of his dominions, his Britannic Majesty promises and engages to give all the succour that it shall be in power to afford (im Original: de donner) which succour shall be continued to him until he shall have obtained an entire security and just indemnification: as the Most Serene Landgrave promises likewise on his part, that in case his Majesty the King of Great Britain is attacked or disturbed in his kingdoms, dominions, lands, provinces or towns, he will give him (im Original: lui prÍtera) in like manner all the succour that it shall be in his power to afford (im Original: de donner) which succour shall likewise be continued to him, until he shall have obtained a good and advantageous peace.

    XI. In order to render this alliance and union the more perfect and to leave no doubt with the parties about the certainly of the succour which they have expect by virtue of this treaty, it is expressly agreed, that to judge for the future whether the case of this alliance and the stipulated succour existe or not, it shall suffice, that either of the parties is actually attacked by force of arms, without his having first used open force against him who attackes him.

    XII. The sick of the Hessian corps shall remain under the care of their physicians, surgeons, and other persons appointed for that purpose, under the orders of the general commanding the corps of that nation, and everything shall be allowed them, that his Majesty allows to his own troops.

    XIII. All the Hessians deserters shall be faithfully given up wherever the shall be discovered in the places dependent on his Britannic Majesty, and above all as far as it is possible, no person whatever of that nation shall be permitted to establish himself in America, without the consent of his sovereign.

    XIV. All the transports of the troops, as well for the men as for the effects, shall be at the expence of this Britannic Majesty, and none belonging to the said corps shall pay any postage of letters, in consideration of the distance of the places.

    XV. This treaty shall be ratified by the high contracting parties, and the ratifications thereof shall be exchanged as soon as possible.In witness whereof, we the undersigned, furnished with the full power of his Majesty the King of Great Britain, on one part, and of his most Serene Highness the reigning Landgrave of Hesse Cassel an the other part, have signed the present treaty and have caused the seals of our arms to be put thereto.

Done at Cassel the fifteenth of January in the year 1776.


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